i siti Unesco nel Lazio
Italy is the country with several UNESCO World Heritage sites - over 50 on the 2017 list located in the various regions - and the Unesco sites of Lazio are seven:
the historic center of Rome with the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See in the city and the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls;
Villa Adriana in Tivoli;
Villa d'Este in Tivoli;
the Etruscan necropolis of Cerveteri and Tarquinia;
the car of Santa Rosa in Viterbo (intangible heritage of humanity)
the Faggeta Vetusta of Monte Cimino.
Rome, capital of Italy, is considered one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Its historic center, together with the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See inside the city and the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, is among the 54 Italian sites included by UNESCO in the World Heritage List. The historic center, enclosed within the Aurelian walls and the Gianicolo walls, includes 25,000 points of environmental and archaeological interest.
Among the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See we can include the complex of San Giovanni in Laterano, the Scala Santa, Santa Maria Maggiore, Palazzo di San Callisto, the buildings on Via Sant'Egidio, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, the Palazzo di Propaganda Fide, Il Palazzo del Sant'Uffizio, the Palazzo Maffei, the Palazzo dei Convertendi, the Palazzo dei Propilei, the Palazzo Pio, the buildings on the Janiculum, the Basilica of St. Paul outside the walls.
Let's start our journey to discover the heritage of the humanity of Lazio outside the eternal city, places full of history, beauty and culture that will leave us speechless.
Villa Adriana in Tivoli
Built at the behest of Emperor Hadrian, the splendid Emperor's Villa dates back to the 2nd century AD. and is located in the pretty city of Tivoli. Built near the capital on the Monti Tiburtini, about 28 km from Rome, it was reachable both via the Via Tiburtina and via Prenestina, or by navigating the Aniene river. The area chosen was rich in water and there were four of the ancient aqueducts that served Rome (Anio Vetus, Anio Novus, Aqua Marcia and Aqua Claudia). Nearby still exists the source of sulphurous water of the Acque Albule (the odienri Bagni di Tivoli), known and much appreciated by the emperor. Even today, the monumentake residential complex displays the splendor of the places of power of ancient Rome. It is possible to admire the Maritime Theater, the Greek Library, the Baths, the Canopus (pool with columns and statues), the Golden Square with the Casa Colonica, the Antinoeion (place of worship dedicated to Antinoo, lover of Hadrian and deified after his death), and other residential buildings, nymphaeums, gardens and pavilions.
Villa d'Este in Tivoli
A few kilometers away from Rome, Villa d'Este was built at the behest of cardinal Ippolito II d'Este, governor of Tivoli from 1550. The cardinal, disappointed by the failed election as pontiff, wanted to revive in this villa the glories of Ferrarese, Roman and French courts and above all to equal the magnificence of Villa Adriana. In addition to the beauty of the building itself, what is striking is the concentration of fountains, caves and water features that represented such a beautiful and perfect model repeatedly emulated in the European gardens of mannerism and baroque.
The Etruscan Necropolis of Cerveteri and Tarquinia
The necropolis of Cerveteri and Tarquinia, included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2004, constitute a unique and exceptional testimony of the ancient Etruscan civilization, the only urban civilization of the pre-Roman era in Italy. In fact, before the expansion of Rome, the upper Lazio was populated by the Etruscans, one of the most fascinating civilizations of our peninsula whose origins are still shrouded in mystery. The frescoes inside the tombs - real reproductions of Etruscan houses - faithfully reproduce the daily life of this lost culture. The tumuli reproduce typologies of buildings that no longer exist in any other form. When they reached their peak in the 4th century BC, the Etruscans believed that there was a life beyond death; for this reason the tomb was conceived just like a house and as such it had to be accompanied by clothes, ornaments, objects of daily use but also of food and drinks. The tombs were placed outside the city center in areas called necropolises, and built either under ground or on the surface but covered with mounds of earth. The two Etruscan necropolises are the Banditaccia in Cerveteri, a small town about 50 km from Rome, which covers about 400 hectares and houses thousands of tombs. It should be noted however that the part that can be visited is only 10 hectares, about 400 mounds. The present tombs go from the ninth to the third century BC and they are formed by a circular structure of tufa that inside reconstructs the house of the deceased with rooms and a corridor to access it. Some of the finds found inside are exhibited in the Museo Cerite (archaeological museum of the city of Cerveteri) but most of them are on display at the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia in Rome.
About 80 km from Rome, Tarquinia is a city of about 16,000 inhabitants in the province of Viterbo, which is 45 km from its provincial capital, and 20 km from Civitavecchia. The necropolis of the Monterozzi di Tarquinia is famous for its painted tombs, carved into the rock and accessible by inclined corridors or steps. It is thanks to the pictorial decorations that the scholars have been able to understand the evolution, the uses and the customs of the Etruscan civilization. Most of the tombres were built for a single pair and constitute a burial chamber. The first painted tombs date back to the 7th century, but they have been completely frescoed since the 6th century. Among the most famous the Tomb of the Lionesses, dating back to the fourth century, which consists of a small room with a double-sloped roof. The painting depicts flying birds and dolphins that jump around scenes of life of the Etruscan aristocracy. The Tomba del Cacciatore, from the 6th century BC, represents the interior of a tent, a real hunting lodge with its wooden support structure. The Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, one of the most famous and studied; composed of two rooms, in the first there is a representation of Dionysian dance in a sacred wood, while in the second, a scene of hunting and fishing together with portraits of the owners of the tomb.
Faggeta Vetusta del Monte Cimino
About 80 km from Rome, the Fageta del Monte Cimino, in Soriano nel Cimino, grows on an ancient volcano and has a width of approx. 60 hectares covered by the Fagus sylvatica beech, with majestic specimens, some of which reach forty meters in height, creating the so-called "fustaia a Cattedrale". These large trees have favored the presence of a large number of wild animals including the hare, wild boar, hedgehog, dormouse and wild cat, as well as raptors and peaks, and constitute a fundamental habitat.